1. Home >
  2. Blog >
  3. What is Winding Wire

What is Winding Wire

Updated : Feb. 19, 2024

Winding wire is a type of electrically conductive metal wire with an insulating layer used for winding coils or windings in electrical products. Its purpose is to generate a magnetic field through the flow of current or to cut magnetic lines of force to induce current, facilitating the conversion between electrical energy and magnetic energy. Therefore, it is also known as electromagnetic wire.

Enamelled wire

Winding wires can be classified into three main categories based on the characteristics and purposes of the insulation layer: enameled wire, wrapped insulation wire, and special insulation winding wire.

Classification criteria classification name
According to conductor material Copper, aluminum, other alloys
By insulation material Enameled wire, wrapped insulation wire, inorganic insulation wire
According to conductor shape Round wire, flat wire, shaped wire

Enamelled wire

Enameled wire is composed of a conductor and an insulation layer, and the insulation layer is formed by multiple coatings and baking of enamel. Enameled wire has excellent electrical performance, heat resistance, and mechanical strength, making it widely used in motors, electrical appliances, electrical instruments, telecommunications devices, and daily appliances.

Enamelled wire

Enameled wire classification

Classification criteria classification name
Classified by conductor shape round wire, flat wire, hollow wire
Classified by wire diameter conventional enameled wire (above 0.6mm in diameter), fine enameled wire (below 0.6mm in diameter)
Classified by insulation enamel type alkyd, polyester, modified polyester, polyimide, polyurethane, polyamide-imide, polyester-imide/polyamide-imide, self-adhesive, composite coating
Classified by heat resistance temperature grade 120°C (E), 130°C (B), 155°C (F), 180°C (H), 200°C (C), 220°C (C), 240°C
Classified by application general-purpose enameled wire (common wire), heat-resistant enameled wire, special enameled wire (corona-resistant, refrigerant-resistant, other)
Classified by conductor material copper wire, aluminum wire, copper-clad aluminum wire

Hot selling enameled wire varieties

  • Polyester enameled wire

    Excels in electrical properties, with a heat resistance up to 130°C, making it a premier choice.

  • Ammonia polyester wire

    Superior wear and solvent resistance, perfect for high-speed winding and wire embedding.

  • Polyamide enameled wire

    Excels in heat, oil, and refrigerant resistance, ideal for demanding environments.

  • Polyesterimide enameled wire

    Blending polyester and polyamide for high heat resistance and good electrical properties.

  • Polyesterimide/polyamide composite

    It merges advantages for better heat resistance and performance.

  • Self-adhesive enameled wire

    It's a self-adhesive enameled wire for complex electromagnetic coils.

In various industries, there are diverse demands for enameled wires in manufacturing electrical equipment.

From polyester to polyurethane, and even composite wires, enameled wires, as a critical material, play a significant role in fields such as electric motors, transformers, household appliances, and more.

Enameled wire application

Industry Types of enameled wire required
Motor Polyester enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire, modified polyester enameled wire, polyamide imide enameled wire, 200 grade composite wire
Power, traction, Distribution transformers Combined wire, acetal wire, 200 grade composite flat wire, large size round wire
Electrical tools Polyester enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire, grade 200 composite wire, grade 200 composite self-adhesive enameled wire
Electronic transformer Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire, self-adhesive enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire, 200 grade composite wire
Micro motor Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire, modified polyester enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire, 200 grade composite wire
Electroacoustic devices Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire, 200 grade composite wire, enameled aluminum wire, copper clad aluminum enameled wire, enameled small flat wire
control relay Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire, modified polyester enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire
Automobiles and electric vehicles Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire, modified polyester enameled wire, polyester imide enameled wire, self-adhesive wire, 200 grade composite wire
Household appliances TV set Self-adhesive wire, Ritz wire, polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire
Refrigerator, air conditioner Class 200 composite wire, polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire
Micro-wave oven Grade 200 composite copper wire, grade 200 composite aluminum wire
Vacuum cleaner Polyesterimide enameled wire, grade 200 composite wire
Washing machine Polyester enameled wire, polyurethane enameled wire

Wrapped insulated wire

Wrapped insulation wire typically uses materials such as glass fiber, insulating paper, or anti-corrosion coated plastic film tightly wrapped around the conductive wire core, forming an insulation layer.

Wrapped insulation wire exhibits excellent insulation performance, high temperature resistance, high mechanical strength, and good resistance to chemical corrosion.

Wrapped insulated wire

Name Explain Application
Paper covered wire It is a wire and cable that uses paper impregnated with hardened oil as the insulating material. Electrical appliances such as power transformers, traction transformers, high-voltage electrical equipment, etc.
Glass fiber covered wire It is a wire with glass wire wrapped around a copper (aluminum) conductor as an insulating layer. Large and medium-sized motors, dry-type transformers, etc.
Film wrapped wire It is a wire that uses a thin film material as an insulating layer and is tightly wrapped around a conductive metal core. Special motor winding wire
Winding wire for wind power generatio It is a kind of insulated wire specially used in wind turbines, which can withstand high voltage and large current. Wind turbines, converters
Silk covered single line Is a single-strand wire that uses natural silk or glass fiber as an insulating coating Electronic instruments and electrical equipment of various instruments
Silk wrapped wire It is a conductor made of multiple single wires that are twisted, plied and covered with natural silk or synthetic silk insulation. Medium frequency, variable frequency motor
transposition wire It is a special wire that is composed of multiple enameled wires and is transposed and twisted to improve electrical performance. For oil-immersed transformers, dry-type transformers, reactors

Special insulated winding wire

Special insulated winding wire is a conductive metal wire with a special insulation layer, used for winding coils or windings of electrical products. Its insulation layer is made of special materials and processes to meet the needs of specific application scenarios.

Special insulated winding wire

Name Explain Application
Three-layer insulated wire There are three layers of insulation to protect the core wires, with high insulation strength and suitable for high-demand applications in cutting-edge technology and defense fields. LCD displays, fax machines, printers
Water resistant winding wire Able to maintain excellent insulation properties and mechanical strength in humid or underwater environments. Water filled motor windings
Hollow flat copper wire It is a winding wire that uses hollow flat copper wire as the conductor and has excellent heat dissipation performance, electrical performance and mechanical strength. windings in generator stator
Oxidized glue line It is a special winding wire that uses oxidized glue material in the insulation layer. dry type transformer
ceramic insulated wire It is a winding wire that uses ceramic material as the insulating layer and has excellent high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance and electrical properties. High temperature and radiation situations
Glass insulated fine wire It is a winding wire that uses glass material as the insulating layer and is made into fine sizes. Small electrical instruments and meters
Enameled stranded wire It is a winding wire made of multiple enameled wires twisted together. Hearing aids, electronic high-frequency transformers, ultrasonic generators

Winding wire winding method

Coil winding methods for wound wires directly impact parameters such as coil inductance, resistance, and heat dissipation.

Single Layer Winding

This method is typically used in small motors or inductor coils. It involves winding the wire tightly in a single layer around the iron core or framework to form a single-layer coil.

The advantage of this method is its simple structure and easy manufacturing, but it has the disadvantage of a smaller inductance, limiting its applicability.

Multi-Layer Winding

When a larger inductance is required, the multi-layer winding method can be employed. In this method, the wire is divided into multiple layers, each separated by insulation material.

Multi-layer winding increases the coil's inductance but also adds to manufacturing costs and complexity.

Honeycomb Winding

Honeycomb winding is a common winding method suitable for some special coil structures. It involves crossing the wire in a specific pattern to create a structure resembling a honeycomb.

This method has the advantages of a compact structure and good heat dissipation performance but requires high manufacturing precision.

Distributed Winding

Distributed winding is a common winding method, especially suitable for large motors and transformers. It divides the coil into several small groups, arranged with a certain pitch between each group.

This method reduces coil leakage magnetic flux and resistance, enhancing the efficiency and performance of the motor.

Additionally, depending on specific requirements and applications, other winding methods can be used, such as concentric winding, chain winding, cross winding, etc.

Distributed Winding

Winding Wire Production Process

1. The insulation varnish is prepared in the varnish mixing area. Various proportions of varnish and diluent are thoroughly mixed and added to the varnish machine, depending on the required insulation level of electromagnetic wires.

2. Drawing is performed in a drawing machine, and the wire is drawn once or multiple times to achieve the desired diameter. The temperature during drawing is typically maintained between 60 to 100°C. Water-soluble lubricants are used for lubrication and cooling. If the temperature exceeds 100°C, additional cooling is performed to dissipate heat.

3. The wire is washed with purified water, which has undergone purification with hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. High-pressure water is used to remove surface oil contaminants from the electromagnetic wire.

4. Annealing is generally conducted using electric heating in an annealing furnace. The annealing temperature is usually controlled between 300 to 600°C. Steam is used for protection during annealing to prevent oxidation. After annealing, the wire is air-cooled using a blower to reach around 40°C before entering the impregnation section.

5. The impregnation is performed in the varnish machine, and it is done multiple times according to the requirements of the insulation layer. Diluents are added in the appropriate proportions during impregnation, and the diluent may contain flammable and toxic liquids such as cresol and xylene.

6. The electromagnetic wire is dried in a drying oven, and the drying temperature depends on the drawing speed, typically ranging from 300 to 400°C, with a maximum of 670°C. Drying and exhaust gas elimination are synchronized. The exhaust gas (temperature: 300 to 400°C) contains toxic and flammable vapors like cresol, phenol, and xylene. After meeting environmental standards through catalytic reaction, it is discharged into the atmosphere by the exhaust fan.

7. Winding involves using a winding device to spool the dried electromagnetic wire onto a spool. A small amount of lubricant (gasoline, cyclohexane) is added during winding.

8. After passing inspection, the wound wire spool is wrapped in plastic film and packed into cardboard boxes or paper tubes. It is then packaged as a wire reel according to customer requirements and stored in a dedicated warehouse.

Winding Wire Production Process

Price factors of winding wire

The price of winding wire varies depending on specifications, materials, production processes, and other factors. In the market, the price of winding wire is typically calculated in terms of "CNY per kilogram" (Chinese Yuan per kilogram). Specifically, different types of winding wire, such as enamelled wire, silk-covered wire, paper-covered wire, etc., may have different prices.

For example, the price of enamelled wire is influenced by factors such as copper prices, insulation varnish, processing fees, etc. Generally, enamelled wire is priced higher than regular copper wire because it involves additional processing with insulation varnish on top of the copper wire. Similarly, the prices of silk-covered wire and paper-covered wire may vary due to differences in production processes and materials.

If you need winding wire, please contact us. Chalco is a professional manufacturer of winding wire, characterized by high standards, high quality, fast delivery, and customizable specifications. We offer competitive prices and are a reliable partner you can trust.

Usage and Maintenance Considerations for Winding Wires

Storage Environment

Winding wires should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated place, protected from direct sunlight to prevent aging or moisture damage to the insulation layer. Additionally, contact with corrosive substances such as acids or alkalis should be avoided.

Installation and Operation

During the installation of winding wires, excessive bending or stretching should be avoided to prevent conductor breakage or damage to the insulation layer. It is essential to ensure that the winding wire is tightly wound around the iron core or framework, reducing gaps and improving inductance and heat dissipation.

Installation and Operation

Monitoring During Operation

Regular checks on the insulation and electrical performance of winding wires should be conducted during the operation of electrical equipment. If aging, cracking of the insulation layer, or a decline in electrical performance is detected, timely replacement is necessary.

Fault Handling

In the event of a fault in the winding wire, the power supply should be cut off first, followed by inspection and repair. During the repair process, inappropriate tools or methods should be avoided to prevent damage to the winding wire or potential safety accidents.

Replacement Cycle

The lifespan of winding wires is limited. It is advisable to schedule replacement cycles based on their usage and the manufacturer's recommendations to ensure the normal operation of electrical equipment.